Climate change attribution per IPCC

April 14, 2007 at 1:07 pm | Posted in Climate change | 1 Comment

Hello Max and NN,

The Third Assessment Report (TAR) Synthesis Report (SYR) Figure 2-1 on the IPCC website here is the one that I linked to months ago in order to show Indicators of the human influence on the atmosphere during the Industrial era.

More information has since become available. So, in response to your comment on tamino’s post, here is the relevant information taken directly from the latest IPCC AR4 Summary for Policymakers by Working Group I, released on 2 February 2007 in Paris.

P.S.  Please click on the thumbnails below for large, impressive images of each.

UNDERSTANDING AND ATTRIBUTING CLIMATE CHANGE
This Assessment considers longer and improved records, an expanded range of observations, and improvements in the simulation of many aspects of climate and its variability based on studies since the TAR. It also considers the results of new attribution studies that have evaluated whether observed changes are quantitatively consistent with the expected response to external forcings and inconsistent with alternative physically plausible explanations.

Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations [12]. This is an advance since the TAR’s conclusion that “most of the observed warming over the last 50 years is likely to have been due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations”. Discernible human influences now extend to other aspects of climate, including ocean warming, continental-average temperatures, temperature extremes and wind patterns (see Figure SPM-4 and Table SPM-1). {9.4, 9.5}

Analysis of climate models together with constraints from observations enables an assessed likely range to be given for climate sensitivity for the first time and provides increased confidence in the understanding of the climate system response to radiative forcing. {6.6, 8.6, 9.6. Box 10.2}

SPM WGI AR4 Changes in Greenhouse Gases from ice-Core and Modern DataFIGURE SPM-1. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide over the last 10,000 years (large panels) and since 1750 (inset panels). Measurements are shown from ice cores (symbols with different colours for different studies) and atmospheric samples (red lines). The corresponding radiative forcings are shown on the right hand axes of the large panels. {Figure 6.4}

SPM WGI AR4 Radiative Forcing ComponentsFIGURE SPM-2. Global-average radiative forcing (RF) estimates and ranges in 2005 for anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and other important agents and mechanisms, together with the typical geographical extent (spatial scale) of the forcing and the assessed level of scientific understanding (LOSU). The net anthropogenic radiative forcing and its range are also shown. These require summing asymmetric uncertainty estimates from the component terms, and cannot be obtained by simple addition. Additional forcing factors not included here are considered to have a very low LOSU. Volcanic aerosols contribute an additional natural forcing but are not included in this figure due to their episodic nature. Range for linear contrails does not include other possible effects of aviation on cloudiness. {2.9, Figure 2.20}

SPM WGI AR4 Changes in Temperature, Sea Level and Northern Hemisphere Snow CoverFIGURE SPM-3. Observed changes in (a) global average surface temperature; (b) global average sea level rise from tide gauge (blue) and satellite (red) data and (c) Northern Hemisphere snow cover for March-April. All changes are relative to corresponding averages for the period 1961-1990. Smoothed curves represent decadal averaged values while circles show yearly values. The shaded areas are the
uncertainty intervals estimated from a comprehensive analysis of known uncertainties (a and b) and from the time series (c). {FAQ 3.1, Figure 1, Figure 4.2 and Figure 5.13}

SPM WGI AR4 Global and Continental Temperature ChangeFIGURE SPM-4. Comparison of observed continental- and global-scale changes in surface temperature with results simulated by climate models using natural and anthropogenic forcings. Decadal averages of observations are shown for the period 1906–2005 (black line) plotted against the centre of the decade and relative to the corresponding average for 1901–1950. Lines are dashed where spatial coverage is less than 50%. Blue shaded bands show the 5–95% range for 19 simulations from 5 climate models using only the natural forcings due to solar activity and volcanoes. Red shaded bands show the 5–95% range for 58 simulations from 14 climate models using both natural and anthropogenic forcings. {FAQ 9.2, Figure 1}

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  1. The last graph (figure SPM-4) is especially persuasive. For every continent, and for the oceans, the observed temperature changes match computer models with anthropogenic factors, but don’t match the results using only natural factors.

    It also drives home the fact that the “modern global warming era” — when human influence began to dominate over natural variations — really starts around 1975.


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