G8 Summit Declaration ~ Growth, Responsibility, Climate Change, Energy Efficiency

June 10, 2007 at 11:30 am | Posted in 2007, Climate change, Economics, Energy efficiency, Energy security, Environment, G8, Germany, Gipfel, Global, Growth, Heiligendamm, Science, Summit, Technology | Leave a comment

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One of many G8 Summit 2007 documents released in Heiligendamm, the Growth and Responsibility in the World Economy G8 Summit Declaration 7 June 2007 includes a wealth of statements, calls to action, and commitments by G8 leaders related to climate change and energy under the following section headings and paragraph numbers:

  • CLIMATE CHANGE ¶ 48

  • Fighting Climate Change ¶ 49, 50, 51, 52, 53
  • Technology ¶ 54
  • Market Mechanisms ¶ 55
  • Reducing Emissions by Curbing Deforestation ¶ 56, 57
  • Adapting to Climate Change ¶ 58, 59, 60
  • Biodiversity ¶ 61
  • ENERGY EFFICIENCY ¶ 62, 63, 64, 65, 66

  • Sustainable Buildings ¶ 67
  • Transportation ¶ 68
  • Power Generation ¶ 69, 70, 71, 72, 73
  • Industry ¶ 74
  • Energy Diversification ¶ 75, 76, 77, 78, 79

and more!

RealClimate posted the key points on climate change from the G8 Summit Document section entitled CLIMATE CHANGE, i.e. paragraphs 48 through 53. There are many more paragraphs in that document related to climate change (some directly, others indirectly) that people need to become aware of, so we can hold our governments to account on this. These are numbered paragraphs, not priorities, by the way.

Here is a continuous middle section on this wide-ranging topic, taken from the middle section of the G8 PDF (I take editorial responsibility for correcting three typos in the original G8 quote below: ¶ 70 high efficient>high efficiency; ¶ 75 encourage>encouraging; ¶ 75 Fonds>Funds!)

CLIMATE CHANGE, ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENERGY SECURITY –

CHALLENGE AND OPPORTUNITY FOR WORLD ECONOMIC GROWTH

40. Humanity today faces the key interlinked challenges of avoiding dangerous climate change and ensuring secure and stable supplies of energy. Since we met in Gleneagles, science has more clearly demonstrated that climate change is a long term challenge that has the potential to seriously damage our natural environment and the global economy. We firmly agree that resolute and concerted international action is urgently needed in order to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and increase energy security. Tackling climate change is a shared responsibility of all, and can and must be undertaken in a way that supports growth in developing, emerging and industrialised economies, while avoiding economic distortions.

41. We recognise the important opportunities offered by effective action addressing climate change, in particular for innovation, technological development as well as poverty reduction. Strong economies together with a wide range of policy instruments such as market-based mechanisms, including emissions-trading, tax incentives, and regulatory measures as well as technology cooperation and a shared long-term vision, are key to guide investment decisions, to generate technology commercialisation, to enhance energy security, to promote sustainable development and to slow, stabilize and then significantly cut global emissions of greenhouse gases.

42. We are committed to take strong leadership in combating climate change. We confirm our determination to work among ourselves and with the global community on global solutions that address climate change while supporting growth and economic development. We commit ourselves to implement approaches which optimally combine effective climate protection with energy security. To this end, we are committed to the further development of the international regime to combat climate change, especially in the run-up to the UN Climate Change Conference in Indonesia at the end of this year. Addressing climate change is a long term issue that will require global participation and a diversity of approaches to take into account differing circumstances.

43. Energy is a fundamental driver of growth and development around the world, and the use of energy has been steadily expanding along with the world’s populations and economies. Our ability to provide secure access to clean, affordable and safe sources of energy to maintain global economic growth complements our desire to protect our environment. Addressing the challenge of energy security will require unprecedented international cooperation in several areas, including market transparency, enhancing energy efficiency, diversifying energy supplies and developing and deploying new and transformational technologies.

44. Energy has been a major field of action for the G8, not least in recent years. We recall that after focusing on resource efficiency in a broader sense (in particular the 3R-Initiative) following the Evian and Sea Island Summits, the Gleneagles G8-Action Plan dealt intensively with clean energy. At the St. Petersburg Summit we adopted groundbreaking decisions on energy security and committed ourselves to a set of agreed areas of cooperation, inter alia to increase transparency, predictability and stability of global energy markets, improving investment climate in the energy sector, enhance energy efficiency, diversify the energy mix, ensure the security of critical energy infrastructure, reduce energy poverty and address climate change. To maintain the momentum of those achievements we herewith strongly reaffirm our commitment to Global Energy Security Principles, including our commitment to enhance dialogue on relevant share-holders’ perspectives on growing interdependence, security of supply and demand issues, facilitate diversification of different types of contracts, including market-based long-term and spot contracts, promote investment in upstream and downstream assets internationally, support the principles of the Energy Charter and the efforts of the participating countries to improve international energy co-operation.

45. To maintain the momentum of that groundbreaking achievement, we

  • invite China, Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa and other major emerging economies to adopt these Global Energy Security Principles,
  • will prepare national reports, with the assistance of the IEA, evaluating G8 member states’ efforts to adhere to those principles, for delivery at the 2008 G8 summit, and
  • note the importance of government-controlled strategic oil reserves, to lessen the impact of sudden and severe natural or man-made disruptions to oil supplies, and encourage the IEA to further assist major emerging oil consuming countries to adopt best practices with regard to building, maintaining and coordination the release of strategic oil reserves.

46. This year we have focussed our discussions on energy efficiency in order to make an effective contribution towards meeting global climate and energy security challenges. Improving energy efficiency worldwide is the fastest, the most sustainable and the cheapest way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance energy security.

47. We welcome the progress made so far at the meetings of the Gleneagles Dialogue on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development, held in the United Kingdom in 2005 and Mexico in 2006. We also welcome the intentions of Germany and Japan to host the Dialogue meetings during their G8 Presidencies. We look forward to receiving a report of the Dialogue at the G8 Summit next year under the Japanese G8 Presidency.

CLIMATE CHANGE

48. We take note of and are concerned about the recent UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. The most recent report concluded both, that global temperatures are rising, that this is caused largely by human activities and, in addition, that f or increases in global average temperature, there are projected to be major changes in ecosystem structure and function with predominantly negative consequences for biodiversity and ecosystems, e.g. water and food supply.

Fighting Climate Change

49. We are therefore committed to taking strong and early action to tackle climate change in order to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that would prevent da ngerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Taking into account the scientific knowledge as represented in the recent IPCC reports, global greenhouse gas emissions must stop rising, followed by substantial global emission reductions. In setting a global goal for emissions reductions in the process we have agreed today involving all major emitters, we will consider seriously the decisions made by the European Union, Canada and Japan which include at least a halving of global emissions by 2050. We commit to achieving these goals and invite the major emerging economies to join us in this endeavour.

50. As climate change is a global problem, the response to it needs to be international. We welcome the wide range of existing activities both in industrialised and developing countries. We share a long-term vision and agree on the need for frameworks that will accelerate action over the next decade. Complementary national, regional and global policy frameworks that co-ordinate rather than compete with each other will strengthen the effectiveness of the measures. Such frameworks must address not only climate change but also energy security, economic growth, and sustainable development objectives in an integrated approach. They will provide important orientation for the necessary future investment decisions.

51. We stress that further action should be based on the UNFCCC principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. We reaffirm, as G8 leaders, our responsibility to act. We acknowledge the continuing leadership role that developed economies have to play in any future climate change efforts to reduce global emissions, so that all countries undertake effective climate commitments tailored to their particular situations. We recognise however, that the efforts of developed economies will not be sufficient and that new approaches for contributions by other countries are needed. Against this background, we invite notably the emerging economies to address the increase in their emissions by reducing the carbon intensity of their economic development. Action of emerging economies could take several forms, such as sustainable development policies and measures, an improved and strengthened clean development mechanism, the setting up of plans for the sectors that generate most pollution so as to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions compared with a business as usual scenario.

52. We acknowledge that the UN climate process is the appropriate forum for negotiating future global action on climate change. We are committed to moving forward in that forum and call on all parties to actively and constructively participate in the UN Climate Change Conference in Indonesia in December 2007 with a view to achieving a comprehensive post 2012-agreement (post Kyoto-agreement) that should include all major emitters.

53. To address the urgent challenge of climate change, it is vital that major economies that use the most energy and generate the majority of greenhouse gas emissions agree on a detailed contribution for a new global framework by the end of 2008 which would contribute to a global agreement under the UNFCCC by 2009.

We therefore reiterate the need to engage major emitting economies on how best to address the challenge of climate change. We embrace efforts to work with these countries on long term strategies. To this end, our representatives have already met with the representatives of Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa in Berlin on 4 May 2007. We will continue to meet with high representatives of these and other major energy consuming and greenhouse gas emitting countries to consider the necessary components for successfully combating climate change. We welcome the offer of the United States to host such a meeting later this year. This major emitters’ process should include, inter alia, national, regional and international policies, targets and plans, in line with national circumstances, an ambitious work program within the UNFCCC, and the development and deployment of climate-friendly technology.

This dialogue will support the UN climate process and report back to the UNFCCC.

Technology

54. Technology is a key to mastering climate change as well as enhancing energy security. We have urgently to develop, deploy and foster the use of sustainable, less carbon intensive, clean energy and climate-friendly technologies in all areas of energy production and use. We have to develop and create supportive market conditions for accelerating commercialisation of new less carbon intensive, clean-energy and climate-friendly technologies. Furthermore, to ensure sustainable investment decisions worldwide, we need an expanded approach to collaboratively accelerate the widespread adoption of clean-energy and climate-friendly technologies in emerging and developing economies.

Therefore, we will

  • stimulate global development, commercialisation, deployment and access to technologies,
  • promote major emerging and developing economies’ participation in international technology partnerships and collaborations,
  • scale up national, regional and international research and innovation activities and
  • undertake strategic planning and develop technology roadmaps to strengthen the role of advanced technology in addressing climate change.

Market Mechanisms

55. Private sector investment is and will remain the primary means of technology deployment and diffusion. Strong economies and a wide range of policy instruments are required to develop, deploy and foster climate-friendly technologies. Market mechanisms, such as emissions-trading within and between countries, tax incentives, performance-based regulation, fees or taxes, and consumer labelling can provide pricing signals and have the potential to deliver economic incentives to the private sector. Fostering the use of clean technologies, setting up emissions-trading systems and, as many of us are doing, linking them are complementary and mutually reinforcing approaches.

Therefore, we will share experience on the effectiveness of the different policy instruments in order to

  • better provide the international business community with a predictable and long-term perspective, and
  • strengthen and extend market mechanisms by, inter alia, developing and extending existing programmes, taking into account the appropriate metrics for such systems.

Reducing Emissions by Curbing Deforestation

56. We are determined to assist in reducing emissions from deforestation, especially in developing countries. Reducing, and in the long term halting deforestation provides a significant and cost-effective contribution toward mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and toward conserving biological diversity, promoting sustainable forest management and enhancing security of livelihoods. To this end, we will

  • encourage the establishment of a pilot project dedicated to building capacity, creating and testing performance-based instruments to reduce emissions from deforestation in developing countries, in support of and without prejudice to on-going UN climate change discussions. We therefore encourage the World Bank, in close cooperation with the G8, developing countries, the private sector, NGOs and other partners, to develop and implement such a forest carbon partnership as soon as possible.
  • continue to support existing processes to combat illegal logging. Illegal logging is one of the most difficult obstacles to further progress in realising sustainable forest management and thereof, in protecting forests worldwide,
  • remain engaged in supporting developing countries to achieve their self-commitments for halting forest loss and to implement sustainable forest management, as stated in various regional initiatives, i.e. the Congo Basin and the Asia Forest Partnerships. Good results and good practice in international co-operation have also been achieved through ITTO projects and the Brazilian Pilot Program to conserve the tropical rain forests.

57. At the St. Petersburg Summit, we agreed to enhance international co-operation in the area of sustainable forest management. We welcome the recent agreement at the UN Forum on Forests on a non-legally binding instrument on the sustainable management of all types of forests. We note that the effectiveness of this instrument will be reviewed by the UN Forum on Forests in 2015. Building on these initiatives, we are determined and urge the international community to strengthen co-operation and the sharing of best practices at all levels. Consideration of additional actions on sustainable forest management could be a possible next step for parties willing to expand on their commitments.

Adapting to Climate Change

58. We acknowledge that even implementing the ambitious mitigation steps described above will not avoid further climate impacts, especially in those developing countries and regions which are most vulnerable to climate change. We are committed to enhancing resiliency to climate variability and climate change in a way that fully supports our common goal of sustainable development. We welcome the adoption of the Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation to climate change. We also note the importance of the UN adaptation funds in helping developing countries mainstream adaptation into policies and programming. We emphasise our willingness to continue and enhance cooperation with and support for developing countries in adapting to climate change and enhancing their resilience to climate variability, in particular those most vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. We also emphasise our willingness to work with developing countries on the costs and benefits of climate change adaptation measures to help integrating them in national development planning. We reaffirm our commitment to assist with climate research and risk assessments including through helping developing countries benefit from satellite observation systems.

59. We will also endeavour under the Montreal Protocol to ensure the recovery of the ozone layer by accelerating the phase-out of HCFCs in a way that supports energy efficiency and climate change objectives. In working together toward our shared goal of speeding ozone recovery, we recognize that the Clean Development Mechanism impacts emissions of ozone-depleting substances. We will continue to exercise leadership in the development of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).

60. We will report on the progress achieved in the areas mentioned above at the G8 Summit in 2008.

Biodiversity

61. We emphasise the crucial importance of the conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity as an indispensable basis for the provision of vital ecosystem services and the long term provision of natural resources for the global economy. We acknowledge the “Potsdam Initiative – Biological Diversity 2010” presented at the G8 Environmental Ministerial meeting in March 2007 and will increase our efforts for the protection and sustainable use of biological diversity to achieve our agreed goal of significantly reducing the rate of loss of biodiversity by 2010.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

62. The global potential for saving energy is huge. According to the International Energy Agency, successfully implemented energy efficiency policies could contribute to 80% of avoided greenhouse gases while substantially increasing security of supply.

63. We recognise that enhanced international cooperation offers enormous opportunities. Against this background we are committed to further strengthening and increasing our efforts of co-operation, both at inter-state level as well as within the framework of the respective international fora and organisations.

To this end, we will

  • continue and further substantiate our energy-efficiency dialogue begun at Evian;
  • move forward with implementing the Gleneagles and St. Petersburg Action Plans, thereby retaining and supporting the IEA’s close involvement;
  • take forward the concrete recommendations on energy efficiency presented by the IEA and consider drawing on these when preparing national energy efficiency plans;
  • encourage the World Bank and other IFIs to further broaden and improve their financial framework for energy efficiency and clean energy;
  • note the EU’s proposal for an international agreement on energy efficiency and ask the Gleneagles Dialogue on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development and the IEA to explore the most effective means to promote energy efficiency internationally, including through the exchange of best practices, sharing methodologies and further cooperation and by inviting other countries with significant energy needs to join;
  • promote international research, encourage investment and development co-operation aimed at energy efficient technologies and other greenhouse gas mitigation options;
  • report on progress in the policies and measures on energy efficiency outlined below at the G8 summit in 2008.

64. We note that, in view of their high energy needs, industrialised and emerging economies have a fundamental joint interest in taking measures to encourage the most effective use of their energy.

65. Against this background we commit ourselves to a model of efficient energy systems and call on other countries with high energy demand, including the major emerging economies, to join us in this endeavour. Our goal of building less energy intensive economies will also advance economic growth and competitiveness. To this end, we will promote the appropriate policy approaches and instruments, including inter alia economic incentives and sound fiscal policies, minimum standards for e nergy efficiency, sound and ambitious energy performance labelling, information campaigns aimed at consumers and industry that enhance national awareness, sector-based voluntary commitments agreed with industry, investment in research and development and guidelines for public procurement. We will develop and implement national energy efficiency programmes and advance international cooperation on energy efficiency, notably on efficiency standards. We ask the IEA to continue to support our national efforts by appropriate advice and make proposals for effective international co-operation.

66. We will furthermore work together with the major emerging economies towards a reduction in energy consumption in priority sectors. To this end we will invite the IEA, its members and their respective industries to increase the dialogue with the major emerging economies on more efficient energy policies and develop guidance mechanisms.

Sustainable Buildings

67. The opportunities for making buildings more efficient are enormous. Following the EU/G8 conference on energy efficiency, held in Berlin in April 2007, we will

  • set up a “Sustainable Buildings Network”, involving the G8 and open for participation of the major emerging economies. The network will develop practical instruments for assessing and advising on the implementation of energy efficiency in buildings and the use of renewable energies, especially for cooling and heating, taking into due consideration the different situations of new and existing buildings, and development and deployment of low and zero-carbon buildings,
  • invite the IEA to take a central role in creating this network,
  • work to increase energy efficiency in the building sector, and to reach a considerable expansion of renewable energies in this area. To this end we will consider the role of nationally determined targets in sustainable buildings and their importance for energy efficiency in the medium to long term. We will actively support the energy efficient technologies and the use of renewable energies by employing market mechanisms, promotion instruments and framework legislation, as well as through public-private-partnership initiatives to move towards low or zero-energy buildings. Instruments to this end include consumer information such as energy performance certificates (“building passports”) and individual energy standards – which also consider renewable energies – for new buildings, modernisation or household equipment.

Transportation

68. Today there are 600 million motor vehicles around the globe, a figure which is projected to double by 2020. With this in mind, we will

  • work to increase energy efficiency in the transport sector . To this end we will ask our governments to foster a large number of possible measures and various instruments that can clearly reduce energy demand and CO2 emissions in the transport sector, including inter alia innovative engine concepts, alternative fuels, city planning measures, public transport, best possible inter-linkage of transport methods, increase the share of alternative fuels and energy carriers (biofuels, hydrogen, LPG/CNG, electricity, hybrid, etc.) in total fuel consumption; fuel diversification, for example synthetic and cellulosic biofuels and CO2-free hydrogen, particularly in combination with the fuel cell, will be decisive in reducing transport CO2 emissions, provided that second generation biofuel technologies become commercially available,
  • step up coordination on development of international biofuel quality standards from various feedstocks to achieve optimal interoperability and emission profiles,
  • avoid possible negative side-effects in biofuel development, particularly in developing countries in order to prevent competition between different forms of land uses, and promote sustainability in biomass cultivation. We invite the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) to continue its work on biofuel best practices and take forward the successful and sustainable development of bioenergy,
  • monitor the implementation of the necessary measures and discuss progress at two-year intervals during the Environmentally Friendly Vehicles Conference the results of which shall be reported to G8-leaders,
  • introduce energy efficiency labels for new cars along the lines of those already on some white goods.

Power Generation

69. Over the next 25 years, fossil fuels will remain the world’s dominant source of energy. Making power generation more efficient, climate friendly and sustainable is therefore crucial.

70. Current innovations in power station design bear significant saving potential. Therefore, we will

  • stimulate investments in high efficiency power plants and grids and promote refurbishment of existing ones by an appropriate national policy framework. By this we aim to increase average power plant efficiencies in each of our countries.
  • continue and expand national and international research and development efforts to further advance modern power station technologies, with the aim of achieving higher efficiency levels
  • adopt instruments and measures to significantly increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) in the generation of electricity.

71. The centre of gravity of global energy demand is continuously shifting towards the emerging economies. We will

  • enhance energy co-operation with those countries as a priority issue, including by actively supporting co-operative research, voluntary technology partnerships and private investment in clean technologies,
  • work in close partnership with industry, science and with governments of other industrialised countries and, in particular, of major emerging economies in order to foster the diffusion and adoption of best practices along the entire fossil fuel process chain with a focus on fuel treatment as well as new and existing power plants. We particularly underline the need to promote capacity building and technology transfer on plant renovation and modernisation. To achieve these goals we will invite the IEA to take a central role in guiding our joint efforts.

72. In recognition of the increasingly urgent needs to achieve longer term greenhouse gas abatement, we will work on accelerating development and deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS), including by

  • prioritising national and international research and development efforts and encouraging international research and technology cooperation, to minimise efficiency losses of the different carbon capture technologies and to clarify geotechnical conditions for secure CO2 storage,
  • encouraging research, development and deployment of clean coal technologies in both developed and emerging economies with the highest energy needs,
  • supporting national and international geoscientific and political efforts in the field of CCS on ensuring security of storage and the provision of necessary legal frameworks to create a stable investment climate, thereby working in co-operation with industry as well as national and international research programmes,
  • reinforcing our commitment made under the Gleneagles and St. Petersburg Plans of Action to support the initiatives taken by IEA and Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF),
  • encouraging our governments to design mechanisms to stimulate the construction and operation of a growing number of large-scale demonstrations of sustainable fossil fuels technologies in commercial power generation.
  • encouraging industry to consider the concept of capture ready when developing new fossil fuel power plant.

73. We reaffirm our support of the efforts of the Global Gas Flaring Reduction Partnership (GGFR) and we commit ourselves to reduce to minimal levels natural gas flaring, and to encourage all oil producing states and private sector stakeholders to do likewise.

Industry

74. Over the next 25 years, global energy consumption in the industrial sector is projected to increase significantly. There is a considerable potential for improving energy efficiency. Therefore, we will

  • cooperate more closely with major emerging economies and leading industries on improving energy efficiency in energy intensive industries utilising on-going work of the IEA for developing sector energy efficiency indicators and combining good practices.
  • encourage the introduction of cost-effective technology as well as promote research and development for further innovation for breakthrough of the technology in such areas as iron, steel and cement.

Energy Diversification

75. Diversification of energy sources, markets, transportation routes and means of transport and types of energy is essential to energy security and to a low-carbon energy path. Increasing and varying our sources of energy helps to defuse the risks of disruption from any one source. Increasing the use of alternative sources of energy can over time greatly relieve pressure on markets for conventional fossil fuels and reduce the adverse environmental impacts of energy use.

76. Underlining the importance of energy diversification, and recognising that G8 members will choose different ways to achieve their energy diversity goals, we

  • will continue to develop and implement the policy frameworks needed to support our intensive commitment to the global use of all clean fuels, including clean coal, renewable energy sources (wind, solar, geothermal, bioenergy, hydro power). We will make efforts to integrate renewables into the power grid,
  • reaffirm our pledge at former summits regarding the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Those of us who have or are considering plans relating to the use and/or development of safe and secure nuclear energy believe that its development will contribute to global energy security, while simultaneously reducing harmful air pollution and addressing the climate change challenge.
  • reaffirm our commitment to work towards the reduction or, where appropriate, the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers to environmental goods and services through the WTO Doha negotiations, which will also help us to address our shared energy security and climate goals,
  • welcome concerted global action to promote renewable energy and the support of interested parties for initiatives and partnerships such as the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21), the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program (REEEP), the Global Bio-Energy Partnership (GBEP) and the Mediterranean Renewable Energy Partnership (MEDREP),
  • take note of national and international initiatives to go along with the further development of a peaceful use of nuclear energy including the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), the Russian initiative on multinational centres to provide nuclear fuel cycle services, the Six party proposal of a standing mechanism for reliable access to nuclear Fuel, the Japanese initiative on IAEA standby arrangements system for the assurance of nuclear fuel supply, and the German initiative for an enrichment centre under the exclusive control of the IAEA as well as ongoing debate on other multilateral approaches to a nuclear fuel cycle for a reliable fuel supply program, the work of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), and advanced nuclear energy research under the Generation IV International Forum (GIF).

77. We are committed to the paramount importance of safety, security and non proliferation in using nuclear power. We reiterate common interest to continuously improve nuclear safety, radiation protection, waste management, nuclear security and nuclear liability in our respective countries, and we call upon all other states to do the same. IAEA standards and recommendations form a good basis for the continuous improvement of nuclear safety and security, as well as national nuclear regulatory systems. We underline the need for effective national regulatory infrastructures, in particular the importance for national regulatory body to have sufficient authority, independence, and competence.

We remain committed to a robust regime for assuring nuclear non-proliferation as well as a reliable safety and security system for nuclear materials, radioactive wastes and nuclear facilities. We ensure full implementation of the international conventions and treaties in force today which are a prerequisite for a high level of nuclear safety and security as well as a basis to achieve a peaceful and proliferation-resistant nuclear energy use. The responsibility of all nations to support the work of the IAEA and all measures to implement these conventions and treaties in these fields is emphasized.

78. Considering the above mentioned challenges, the G8 Nuclear Safety and Security Group (NSSG) will continue in its work to consider nuclear safety and security issues.

79. In recognition of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 we reaffirm our commitments – under former G7/G8 Summit declarations and memoranda of understanding and through Chernobyl Shelter Funds (CSF) and Nuclear Safety Account (NSA) programmes – to undertake joint efforts with Ukraine to convert the damaged reactor unit site into safe conditions.

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